PROSEU Resources

In the framework of PROSEU's work, several documents with research results have already been or will be published. All of them were also published on Zenodo, an open-access repository which allows researchers to deposit data sets, research software, reports and anything else research-related.

They are touching upon the following areas of interest:

1. About RES prosumers

Baseline review of RES prosumers

This document establishes a baseline review and characterisation of renewable energy sources (RES) prosumer initiatives across Europe, which other PROSEU work packages can subsequently build on. Based on highly collaborative work carried out under Task 2.1 and 2.2 of WP2, this report shares interdisciplinary insights on the current state of play for collective forms of prosumer initiatives in Europe using a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods.

This report has also been published on Zenodo.

Typology of RES Prosumer collectives across Europe

This report on Zenodo.

2. Regulatory frameworks and policy

Transposition Guidance for citizen energy policies - Recommendations to strengthen prosumers and energy communities when transposing the Clean Energy Package (RED II, EMD)

This paper aims to inform and facilitate the transposition and the implementation of the Renewable Energy Directive (RED II, 2018/2001) and the Electricity Market Directive (EMD, 2019/944) in combination with the Governance Regulation (GR, 2018/1999). It focuses specifically on the provisions regarding the newly established rights of citizens like self-consumption and energy communities. It provides recommendations to be applied when drafting national legislation and regulation; it addresses both policy makers and civil society advocacy groups.

Policy Brief "Participatory Governance for the roll-out of the Energy Union"

The purpose of this paper is to provide recommendations to policy-makers, legislators and administrations on the implementation of rights allowing prosumers and energy communities to participate in the roll-out of the Energy Union. The governance for the roll-out of the Energy Union should be based on wide involvement of stakeholders and therefore, be participatory. Prosumes and energy communities are important actors of the energy transition and should play an active role in the creation of the Energy Union policies.

Assessment report of existing EU-wide and Member State-specific regulatory and policy frameworks of renewable energy prosumers

This report on Zenodo.

Preliminary check of NECPs on prosumerism for 9 EU member states (spread sheet)

As part of the policy related activities, PROSEU partners eco-union and Client Earth have carried out a preliminary check on the provisions on self-consumption and energy communities in the draft National Energy and Climate Plans (NECPs) of nine EU member states (BE, DE, ES, FR, HR, IT, NL, PT, UK). The main findings are that only France and Spain put a reasonable emphasis on the importance of self-consumption and energy communities as suggested by RED II. Germany and Italy show some efforts while the NECPs of the other five member states contain only weak or no provisions on prosumerism. Most countries don’t define neither targets nor measures.

This study has also been published on Zenodo.

Strategies for enhancing policy coherence and sustainability:

Principles for Prosumer Policy Options - Recommendations to strengthen prosumers and energy communities in NECPs and other EU, national and local policies. (on Zenodo)

Principles for Prosumer Policy Options - 2 pager summarising the 5 key principles and main recommendations. (in English, in Spanish)

3. Finance and Business models

Business models for prosumers in Europe

This report explores the different business models being adopted to enable renewable energy generation and self-consumption in the European Union. It explains why Renewable Energy Communities and Citizen Energy Communities are necessary, what kinds of value they might be trying to capture in the energy transition, and how they can be empowered through EU member states’ energy policy and regulation.

The report has also been published on Zenodo.

Policy for Prosumer Business models in the EU

In this policy brief, we build on the previous discussions through an analysis of the regulatory and broader institutional challenges facing these emerging business models for the nine member states in scope1. We therefore seek to address the following questions:

  • In which member states can these business models exist and why?
  • What are the key policy constraints and enablers for their replication in other contexts?
  • How can policymakers enable their diffusion to disrupt or consolidate existing markets, institutions and stakeholders?

By addressing these questions, we aim to provide policymakers with a set of concrete recommendations for how to mainstream the prosumer phenomenon through new business models which can deliver value to both prosumers and the energy system.

Stakeholder Report on Financial Innovation for Prosumer Expansion

This report gives examples of financial innovations already available to prosumer business models and establishes how they can be integrated into the diverse financial markets in the European Union. The main goal of this report is to inspire stakeholders – such as financial institutions and community energy intermediaries – either to adopt these models or to adapt them to their respective national and local contexts. For this purpose, we give an overview of 10 cases - local initiatives, supporting organisations and/or financial institutions - and show how they have developed their model within the respective institutional environment.

The report has also been published on Zenodo.

4. Technological opportunities and innovative solutions

Prosumer technology database: CHP, El, H (Excel sheets)

Set of three databases of technologies compatible with the Strategic Energy Technologies Information System (SETIS) and its various tools. It includes energy production, energy demand, demand side management and energy storage both in terms of electricity and heat as well as current and future technologies.

This database has also been published on Zenodo.

Report on local, national and EU scenarios of renewable prosumer integration

This report analyses various technical scenarios of renewable prosumer integration to determine the full potential for the uptake of such technologies. Three general scenarios were developed with three different reference years and for different levels of use cases.

The report was also uploaded on Zenodo.

Key technical findings and recommendations for prosumer communities

This document presents conclusions and recommendations based on the technical findings of the PROSEU project to assist prosumers to choose their suitable renewable prosumer technology depending on their need, demands, size and location. Further, it offers recommendations that can support the implementation and mainstreaming of prosumer technologies. Besides this, it also gives an overview of the key prosumer technologies and their technical, economical, ecological and social parameters as well as giving some best practice examples.

The report was also uploaded on Zenodo.

5. Incentive Structures for renewable energy prosumerism

Synthesis of incentive structures: input for participatory integrated assessment

This study develops a comprehensive overview of the incentive structures that shape the mainstreaming of RES prosumerism. The Incentive Structures Framework presented here identifies and describes 17 key societal conditions, classified along the three clusters of regulatory-financial conditions, technological-material conditions and cultural-discursive conditions.

The study has also been published on Zenodo.

6. Infographics

Living labs

Prosumer Community of Interest

  • Business models and financing
  • Technological opportunities
  • Incentives and roadmaps for the future
  • Living labs
  • Policy Briefs

Several open access publications were and are planned to be published in the framework of the PROSEU project. They will be listed on this page as they become available.

Transformative innovation and translocal diffusion

February 2020

by: Derk Loorbach, Julia Wittmayer, Flor Avelino, Timo von Wirth, NikiFrantzeskaki - DRIFT, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Collective Renewable Energy Prosumers and the Promises of the Energy Union: Taking Stock

January 2020

by: Lanka Horstink, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto (FEUP) & Institute of Social Sciences, University of Lisbon (ICS-UL), Lisboa, Portugal; Julia M. Wittmayer, DRIFT - Dutch Research Institute for Transitions, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Kiat Ng, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto (FEUP) & CIIMAR-Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Portugal; Guilherme Pontes Luz, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (CE3C), Faculty of Sciences of Lisbon University, Portugaal; Esther Marín-González, CE3C; Swantje Gährs, Institute for Ecological Economy Research (IÖW), Berlin, Germany; Inês Campos, CE3C; Lars Holstenkamp, Institute of Banking, Finance and New Venture Management, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Germany; Sem Oxenaar, DRIFT - Dutch Research Institute for Transitions, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Donal Brown, Sustainability Research Institute, University of Leeds, UK.

Prosumers in the post subsidy era: an exploration of new prosumer business models in the UK

December 2019

by: Donal Brown, Steven Hall, University of Leeds, Sustainability Research Institute, UK; Mark E. Davis, Bauman Institute, School of Sociology and Social Policy, University of Leeds, UK.

Regulatory challenges and opportunities for collective renewable energy prosumers in the EU

December 2019

by: Inês Campos, Guilherme Pontes Luz, Esther Marín-González - Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (CE3C), Faculty of Sciences of Lisbon University, Portugal; Swantje Gährs - Institute for Ecological Economy Research (IOW), Germany; Stephen Hall - Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, UK; Lars Holstenkamp - Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Institute of Banking, Finance and New Venture Management, Germany.

Renewable Energy Prosumers in Mediterranean Viticulture Social-Ecological Systems

November 2019

by: Inês Campos, Esther Marín-González, Guilherme Luz - Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (CE3C), Faculty of Sciences, Lisbon University, Portugal; João Barroso - Sustainability Plan for Wines of Alentejo, Comissão Vitivinícola Regional Alentejana, Évora, Portugal; Nuno Oliveira - Ecosystem management, Esporão SA, Lisboa, Portugal.

Advancing Energy Policy - Lessons on the integration of social sciences and humanities


Edited by Chris Foulds and Rosie Robinson, Global Sustainability Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK

Afterword by PROSEU coordinator Inês Campos

PROSEU in partner- and other project-Newsletters and Websites



For more information: communicationatproseu [dot] eu